When Must an IEP Meeting be Held? | Special Education
When must an IEP meeting convene in Arizona? In my previous blogs, I discussed the timeline until the actual IEP meeting.
There are certain requirements for the school to start an evaluation, look at that data, and decide if you or your student are eligible for an IEP. So, that’s where I’ll kind of start with this blog. If you want more information on those timelines, you can check out the other posts on our website.
So, you have found out that your student is eligible for an IEP. When must the meeting be convened?
IEP Meeting After an Eligibility Requirement has been Made
After making an eligibility requirement so they can have an IEP, the school must hold the meeting within 30 calendar days. Sometimes, the school may ask for an extension if certain evaluators or team members, special education, program directors, and things like that need help to get all their schedules together.
Occasionally, with the parent’s consent, the team can continue it for a while. However, it’s usually 30 days.
So, in 30 days, the team will convene the meeting. That’s when they construct the actual IEP.
In the meeting convened, you’ll discuss the goals of the student, where they currently are academically, emotionally, and behaviorally, and how you will get them to those goals:
So, what services does the school need to provide for that student?
How will they be checked and assessed along the way, and how often will they happen?
Annual IEP Meetings
So, that’s the first IEP meeting. Once all of that is constructed, and you have the actual IEP, an IEP meeting will be held annually. And at those annual meetings, it’ll be like a year after the first one, the team all comes together, including parents or guardians.
They will discuss how the child performs and whether they’re reaching their goals. And if anything needs to be adapted to meet their needs. How is the progress monitoring going? All of that they will discuss in an annual meeting.
Student is Reassessed Every Three Years
Every year you will have an additional IEP meeting. Then, every third year, the student is reassessed.
Again, we’re talking evaluation versus assessment. If the school has enough data, they’ll decide if they’re eligible for an additional three years. They may determine that the student needs to be reevaluated by an evaluator for various reasons. And they would then adjust the IEP.
When is an IEP Meeting Convened?
To summarize, when is an IEP meeting convened? It would be 30 days after the student is declared eligible for an IEP for the initial meeting and the construction of the IEP. After that, you’ll have another meeting within a year, and after that, every year until the third year.
In the third year, the student will be reassessed and decide if they need to continue the IEP or are no longer eligible. And if that happens at the three-year mark that they’re qualified, then the whole process starts again.
What Should You Not Say in an Arizona IEP Meeting?
What things should a parent or guardian not say in an IEP meeting?
First, I want to let you know that if you’re ever concerned about an IEP meeting, you have the right to have legal counsel. So, you can have an attorney with you if that’s what you decide.
If you decide you’d like to go on your own, these are just some tips you would not likely want to say in the IEP meeting. So, the first one is that parents often want to discuss what’s best for their child, and they’ll use the terms “what’s best for my child?”
Things Parents Should Avoid Saying
It’s natural for parents to want to advocate for their child at an IEP meeting. However, there are some things that you should avoid saying during an IEP meeting. These things can jeopardize your child’s chances of getting the necessary services.
Some of the things you should avoid saying at an IEP meeting are:
- Making demands
- Threatening legal action
- Saying that you don’t trust the IEP team
- Speaking in a negative tone
It’s also important to remember that an IEP meeting is not a place for you to vent your frustrations. Instead, it’s a place for you to collaborate with the IEP team to create a plan to help your child succeed.
Parents Should Say These Instead
It’s best if you say “need.” So, instead, you should say, my child needs, and then fill in the blank if it’s an accommodation, an evaluation, but your child needs these things.
You must communicate to the group, and the school district, that your child needs these things. It’s not what’s best for them; they need to learn. And they’re granted by federal statutes. That’s why you’re here in the IEP meeting to start with.
Parents Shouldn’t Feel Pressured in Signing an IEP
Second, and this is the most common, I think parents don’t realize that an IEP is a legally binding document that the school must comply with. That means that after you sign it, it’s legally binding; therefore, it’s a little bit more challenging to go back and change.
Sometimes, parents say, “okay, I’ll sign the document today.”
I think that’s a mistake. I think it’s important to take time, sleep on it, have counsel, an attorney who specializes in education look it over, and maybe healthcare providers as well. But take your time before you sign it. You shouldn’t feel pressured, and you should never say, okay, I’m going to sign it right now. Read it over. And if you have questions, do your research.
It is crucial for your student because the school must adhere to these things. There’s no option. They absolutely must. So, if you have any concerns that they haven’t included something, or you don’t like how something is worded or the goals, speak up and make sure you let them know you have concerns. You should absolutely say that. And take your time before you sign it, don’t feel pressured to sign it right there on the spot. You absolutely can take time.
Parents Have the Right to Speak Up and Ask Questions
Another thing not to say is, “let’s just wait and see how my student does.”
That language. As I just talked about, an IEP is a legally binding document. It’s very difficult. Not impossible, but it isn’t easy to amend it after it’s signed. So, you don’t want to wait and see. You want to make sure everything is in order when it’s created and signed by you as a parent.
Another thing, I think it’s not what you say but what you don’t say. I believe parents are nervous about asking for something. Again, speaking about evaluations, speak up if you don’t agree with the evaluation or the assessments.
The school absolutely must provide these things. Suppose you disagree with the school employees, maybe the psychologist the school employs. In that case, you have a right to speak up and ask for an independent education evaluation. And the school does have to pay for that and provide that to you. So, remember. I think the biggest takeaway here is parents and guardians don’t realize how much rights they have.
And so, being complicit in these IEP meetings and not speaking up or using consenting language even if you disagree. Not speaking up and saying, “I disagree with this”—I think those are the biggest things you need to worry about, what to say and not to say in an IEP meeting.
What is the Arizona IEP Timeline? | IEPs and Special Education
What is a typical IEP timeline in Arizona? Specifically from when the parent or guardian initiates the process to the completion of the IEP.
A couple of things to note are if a parent or guardian lets the school know, in writing, that they would like their child to be assessed to see if they’re eligible for an IEP or special education. They let the school know in writing—that’s important. When that happens, and the school receives that written request from a parent or guardian, they have 15 school days.
Considerations That Affect the School’s Response Timeline
So, this is important. After the initial request, they have 15 school days to respond.
Now, a couple of things to note when discussing eligibility for an IEP or special education qualification. An evaluation or an assessment may need to occur. And those are two separate things.
IEP Eligibility Assessment
An evaluation is to collect data for it to be assessed. Sometimes there’s already enough data from the school. It might mean grades, teacher, or parent observations. It could be the student’s primary health provider and behavioral health if they have any of those services.
Those providers can also provide data because they’ve already assessed the student. Therefore, the evaluation has already happened. If this is something different and the data cannot give a clear picture, an additional evaluation would need to happen.
School’s Conclusion Based on the Student’s Evaluation Result
And all of this would be decided by the school. They would look at the data they already have on the student to see if they need an additional evaluation. “Do we already have the data we need to assess the student?” Or if they have the data, and the student really doesn’t qualify or doesn’t need to have any additional evaluations—the process stops there.
So, as we had discussed, that 15-day mark, 15 school days. The school district and the special education team will then let you know if an evaluation is needed, if they already have all the data, or if they have the data and the student doesn’t qualify.
What If Additional Evaluation is Needed?
At that time, parents or guardians will be notified. If they decide that an evaluation needs to occur, the school has 60 calendar days. Now, we’re switching. We started with 15 school days, and now we’re 60 calendar days. They have 60 calendar days to collect all the necessary assessments and evaluations to look at the data, meet, and decide on eligibility.
Now, the school does have one sort of continuance of 30 days. So, they are allowed an additional 30 days. It only happens if it’s in the student’s best interest and the parent or guardian and the school have agreed. At most, you have 15 days to initiate the process.
After 15 days, they will inform you if an additional evaluation needs to occur. The school then has 60 calendar days and possibly an extra 30. At the end of that, that’s 90 calendar days. The school will then have to decide with their team if your child is eligible for an IEP or special education.
How Do I Get an IEP For My Child in Arizona?
How do you get an IEP for your student in Arizona?
An IEP typically starts from the perspective of the parent or guardian. Suppose they believe their child would be eligible for certain services at the school, specifically special education. In that case, they will write a letter to the school stating they would like their child to be evaluated for IEP or special education services.
Once that starts, the parent or guardian initiates it, the school then takes that, and they have 15 days to decide if an evaluation needs to happen or if they have enough data on the student to assess if they would qualify.
IEP Evaluation of your Child in Arizona
An evaluation is just gathering data for assessment. Let’s say you already have information on the student from their regular healthcare provider, maybe a behavioral health therapist, observations of teachers, parents, grades, things like that, that the data’s already there. In that case, they may not need an additional evaluation. Within 15 days, the school will decide with their team if the student needs further evaluation or if they can already assess.
Evaluation for IEP Eligibility
So, at that time, they may decide whether the student is eligible or not or that they may need further evaluation. But you’ll know once they get all the information and make an eligibility determination. They’ll say, yes, the student is eligible for an IEP. When that happens, again, as we discussed, the student may be reevaluated or have all the data they need.
IEP Meeting Schedule
But once they think they have enough information to assess them properly for an IEP, they will schedule an IEP meeting.
Other topics of interest include:
Special Education Services and Goal-Setting for Eligible Student
At that meeting, they will schedule it. The parents, guardians, evaluators, and potentially the team or special educators from the school can be there; they will all come together. And this is when they set all of the expectations, and the puzzle pieces come together for the IEP.
So, the school will set goals, determine special education services or other types of services for that student, and monitor progress. So they’ll specify how and how often they need to evaluate the student to see if they’re meeting their goals.
Things like, where are you going? How are you getting there? And how can you tell how you’re doing? They will set up all that information at the IEP meeting, and once that’s agreed upon, it will go into force. Then the student will start receiving those services, and the school will be bound by that individualized education for that student.
Annual Reassessment for an IEP Student
The IEP team will hold a meeting yearly. They’ll go through everything and reassess. Then, every three years, the student will be reevaluated to ensure they are properly eligible for an IEP. That’s the basics of how you get to request an IEP to get one in your hand.
But the main point to remember is that if you’re a parent or a guardian and you think your student may be eligible for an IEP, put it in writing, and send it to the school. They have 15 days to make that evaluation or decide if they need an additional assessment for your student. And you can hold the school to that.
As a parent or guardian, you can request an IEP evaluation for your child if you think they might need special education services. You can make this request to the school district in which your child attends school. The school district must evaluate whether your child is eligible for special education services.
If the school district determines that your child is eligible for special education services, they will develop an IEP for your child. The IEP is a document that outlines the special education services your child will receive.
What are Team-Based Early Intervention Services in Arizona?
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is a federal law that helps to ensure that all children with disabilities have access to a free and appropriate education. The law also requires states to provide early intervention services to infants and toddlers with developmental delays. In Arizona, these services are known as Team-Based Early Intervention Services (TB EIS).
TB EIS is a statewide system of services and supports designed to meet the needs of infants and toddlers with developmental delays. The system is based on the belief that all children have the right to participate in meaningful activities in their homes, communities, and schools.
Is AZ IEP Free?
How much does an IEP cost in the state of Arizona? First, we’ll start with the cost of the parent. This one is easy. It costs the parents $0. If your student is in public school or charter school here in Arizona, the cost of the IEP is at the expense of the school.
Meeting the Needs of the Child
However, if you are trying to get your child a diagnosis or an evaluation before the IEP even starts, it’s likely that that is a cost you would incur. So, this is your healthcare provider, maybe a behavioral health specialist. If you take them to a physician who specializes in meeting your child’s needs, that would be a cost you would incur.
School’s Responsibility in IEP Evaluation
However, the school is responsible for getting any evaluators or assessments for your child to decide if they are eligible for an IEP. The school is responsible for the cost of the educators, the team who’ll construct the IEP, to meet with the parents, and if any additional services are needed, so if you need to bring anybody into the school to provide (for example, a specialized type of therapy)— that’s the school’s cost. That’s the school’s responsibility.
It is rooted in federal statutes, federal case law, and Supreme court cases. Also, here in Arizona, federal statutes and regulations are as well. So, any cost of the IEP—which can vary depending on the student’s needs—is the school’s responsibility to meet those needs and get the evaluations needed to decide if they are eligible for an IEP.
All those costs can range greatly, but it’s the school’s responsibility to do that, not the parent’s. So, as a short answer, parents, it should cost you zero for the actual IEP itself. However, if you get any pre-evaluation or assessments done, that would be a cost you would incur.
Provide Support Staff for an IEP Student
But then, once the process of the IEP starts, any of the services the IEP requires are all responsibility of the school, and that cost can vary greatly.
Suppose support staff needs to be brought in for that student if they need aid in the general education classroom. If they need therapy, the IEP team brings in a therapist, an occupational therapist, a speech therapy, or a behavioral health analyst. If they need to have any adaptations for their environment, this could make classrooms more accessible to them.
Speak to an Attorney
All these things cost money, but the school incurs it, which varies considerably. You may get into some issues with the IEP process because the school, as I said, incurs that cost. And so they sometimes look out for their financial interest balancing that with the student’s needs. But if your student needs certain things the school does not provide for you, you’d want to reach out to a possible attorney to be advised on your rights and how to start the process for an IEP.
You might have a perception that education is expensive.
However, the good news is that Arizona’s Individualized Education Program (IEP) is free. The federal and state government have put in place adequate measures to ensure that all children with disabilities can access this form of education at no cost. However, the program is only partially free. Families must still pay for some costs associated with IEP, such as travel expenses, books, and other materials.
What Are the Components of An IEP In Arizona?
What are the components of an IEP in Arizona? First, an IEP stands for an Individualized Education Plan.
The components of an IEP vary from state to state. However, in general, an IEP must include the following:
- A statement of the child’s present level of educational performance
- A description of the child’s special education and related services
- Annual goals for the child’s educational progress
- A description of how they will measure the child’s progress
- The date by which the IEP will be reviewed and revised, if necessary
It’s essential to understand that an IEP is a living document that people can revise. As your child’s needs change, you can modify the IEP to address those changes.
What is an Individualized Education Plan (IEP)?
IEP is a legally binding document codified in state and federal statutes. If a student is eligible for special education or other education or modifications within the school, they are legally granted those and not discriminated against.
Let’s talk about this. Say a parent has requested an IEP, the student has been evaluated and assessed, and they are eligible for an IEP. You sit down for the IEP meeting, in which a parent or guardian is included.
Individualized Education Plan Components
So, let’s discuss the components of the IEP.
We’ll start first with the goals. There will be goals the school expects the student to hit. They might be academic, behavioral, or emotional. They may be short-term, and they may be long-term. It varies and depends on the student’s needs, but there are goals. So, what are we all expecting of the student?
Progress Level Monitoring of the Child’s Goals
Next, after the goals, there will be information on where the child is and where they are achieving their level. Again, this might be academic, emotional, or behavioral, and we need to know where the student is currently. So, we have the goal, where they are, and how they will get there. It is the progress monitoring of the goals.
Student’s Accommodation | Special Education Services Provision
So, how will they be assessed, how often, and is there an end or a start date? They’re going to get specific on that. Also, what actual accommodation is the student going to receive? It might be special education being pulled out. It could be in the classroom, additional services, or therapy coming to the school.
Again, there are so many things, and it’s very fact sensitive, but overall, what sort of accommodation will this student receive? How often? For what duration? And what is it that’s going to be happening?
Frequency of the Student’s Re-evaluation and Assessment
Again, this is important because an IEP is legally binding, meaning the school and all staff have to abide by this. So, that’s important.
What services or accommodation is the student going to receive? Also, how frequently are they going to be monitored, and how? We have spoken about that before.
Also, on an annual review, there’ll be a statement of how the student is doing. Have they reached those goals and feel they’re on the right track? Do the goals or services need to be reassessed? And then, every three years, the student will be reevaluated. Then the process starts over or is carried over depending on how the assessment goes.
So, those are the main components of an IEP.
IEP Components in Arizona
To summarize, you have goals for the future and progress monitoring—so, how often will you be testing or assessing that student to see if they’re hitting their goals? How are they going to get there? What services or accommodations will the school handle in the regular classroom and outside of the classroom?
Will they bring in other help, such as therapy or other accommodations? Also, where the student started, their initial assessment, and an annual report, where you’ll see their progress, the plan, and if they need reassessment.
So, we can break it down into:
- What are the needs of the student?
- What are the goals and how are we getting there?
- Are we there, or do we need more evaluations?
- Do we need more accommodations?
And those are monitored on an annual basis. And then again, at three years, the student is reassessed. And everyone must comply with an IEP. Furthermore, it is a legally binding document. That’s why it’s so important to have those components that give the student the best opportunity, environment, and accommodations to succeed within their environment.
What Is the Difference Between A 504 Plan and IEP In Arizona?
What are the differences between an IEP and a 504 plan in Arizona? These terms get used a lot by educators and school systems. Sometimes, parents don’t know that they’re separate documents and mean different things, and they grant different accommodations or specialized education.
So, I will break down the main differences between a 504 plan and an IEP. The significant differences are who qualifies for them.
Lastly, what accommodations or specialized education do you receive with both documents?
What is a 504 Plan in Arizona?
So, starting with the 504 plan. The 504 plan is codified in section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, which grants civil rights to people who may have a disability. Some disabilities impair them in the classroom so they may need accommodations. Now, a 504 plan does not define what is considered a disability to grant a 504 plan—an IEP does.
Is your Child Eligible for a 504 Plan?
So, a 504 plan is just for anybody with a disability who needs support. Also, a 504 plan covers anyone, K-12, in the college setting or university, while the IEP stops at grade 12. Those are the main differences. It’s easier to qualify for a 504 plan than it is for an IEP when it comes to a specific sort of disability.
Scope of a 504 Plan
Also, the 504 plan is only going to address accommodations. It does not address specialized education or instruction. So, a 504 plan might look like students can take medication at school or have certain technology granted to them. Maybe changes to their environment, more time on a test, or being able to be in a quiet room alone if they’re taking an exam. Things like that are going to be more of a 504 plan.
It’s just an accommodation; it’s written on a document. That’s how it is. It’s easier to get, and the process is quicker. However, you’re just getting those accommodations.
What is an IEP in Arizona?
Now, with an IEP, this is when you’re going to get that specialized education. So, the school will pull you out regarding your child for special education. Although in an IEP, you might also get those same accommodations.
Let’s talk about an IEP. An IEP is codified under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. It grants people with a specified disability, and there’s a list of 13 categories your student must qualify under. And they will have an actual plan, a legally binding document.
How IEP Works
An IEP will give goals for your student to achieve and how they will get there. It is when we discuss accommodations, testing, progress monitoring, etc. You will meet annually to check those goals to ensure that you’re reaching or on the right track.
Categories of Disabilities
Then, every three years, the student will need to be reevaluated to see if they’re still eligible for the IEP. In the IEP, as I said, you do have to have one of the 13 categories of disabilities. And those are anywhere from:
- Emotional disorders
- Specific learning disabilities
- Speech or Language
- Visual Impairment,
- And traumatic brain injury.
Those are the basic list and the categories; your student must qualify underneath one. If they don’t, they will not receive an IEP. But that doesn’t mean they can’t get a 504 plan because a 504 disability is defined broadly to qualify for it.
So, those are the main differences.
Difference Between IEP and 504 Plan Requirements
A 504 plan does not have the same time requirements as an IEP. You can check out my blog on how to get an IEP for your child.
But once the parent initiates the process for an IEP, the clock starts ticking, and the school has a specific time period they must adhere to for your student to receive the IEP. A 504 plan does not have that.
So, sometimes parents should keep reaching out, advocating for their students, and pushing for that. Once you give written notice that you would like your child to be evaluated for a 504 plan, the school must do some evaluation.
The purpose of the evaluation is to collect data to assess the student. Suppose the school already has enough data, teachers’ and parents’ observations; they’re already going to different types of therapy or medical health providers, and they’re all providing data—in that case, an additional evaluation may not be needed.
The process would be that the 504 team would decide if an additional evaluation would need to happen. Once that evaluation has taken place where they feel like there’s already enough data, they’ll determine whether the student is eligible for a 504 plan.
Again, a 504 plan is different from an IEP. In an IEP, you need a specific category of disabilities to qualify. For a 504 plan, that’s not the case.
Who Can Qualify?
The standard is that the student must be physically or mentally impaired, substantially that it limits major life activities. So, if that’s the standard they’re looking at, it can be physical and mental, but it must substantially impair them. If the school finds it, then they will write the 504 plan. And it will address accommodation for the students.
Arizona IEP Progress Monitoring Basics
The IEP progress monitoring process is designed to help ensure that your child is progressing toward their goals. Progress monitoring can take many forms, but it typically includes regular check-ins with the IEP team. Progress monitoring might also include collecting data on your child’s progress and reviewing that data with the IEP team.
Arizona IEP Evaluation Concerns
What are some evaluation concerns regarding an IEP in Arizona?
An evaluation is the very beginning of the IEP process. It not only decides if your child or student is eligible for an IEP but what that may entail—accommodations, specialized instruction, or special education.
So, evaluations are a critical part of the IEP process, but today we discuss concerns. Sometimes, well, let me backtrack. So, the purpose of an evaluation is to collect data, assess if the student is eligible for an IEP, and what type of accommodations or specialized instructions they will be granted. Again, evaluations sometimes actually aren’t even necessary to take place.
Whose Assessment is Reliable?
Suppose the teacher has observed particular behavior and grades. Maybe your primary care provider, specialized therapist, or medical health professionals have already assessed the student. In that case, you may not need an additional evaluation.
That was probably one of the first concerns that parents had. If they don’t need a further evaluation from the information they have, they can decide if the student is eligible. Now, if they’re eligible for an IEP, that’s great.
School Evaluation vs Independent Education Evaluation
Sometimes parents see where the school will declare the student not eligible, and the process stops there.
So, parents and guardians need to know and remember that if you disagree with the evaluation, let’s say even if the school brings in an evaluator, maybe a psychologist and they evaluate the student. If you disagree with that, as a parent or a guardian, you have the right to ask for an independent evaluation for a special education evaluation.
And what this means is that the school must pay for it. It is not something that you would be paying for. The school would bring in an individual the school does not employ, and they’re just using their services for an evaluation. They would do an independent education evaluation of the student.
So, this is a great way. And it’s one thing that parents don’t understand. I think many times in the IEP process, they have a lot of rights and a lot of say about their students and their special education evaluations.
Unfavorable Evaluation Outcome
So, if, in the beginning, they’re saying they’ve already conducted an evaluation on your student and they’re not eligible, you have the right to ask for an independent education evaluation.
Some processes happen if the school does not want to provide this. If that happens, seek an attorney to help advocate for you and instruct you on your rights for this external independent education evaluation.
If you disagree with it and would like an outside evaluation, you could also pay if you wanted to for your outside evaluation. But the school does have to provide that for you. So, there are timelines, but sometimes parents don’t want to wait, so they’ll pay for an evaluator. The school does have to consider that for the IEP.
Right to Request for a Second Opinion
So, the main concern is not getting an evaluation when you think there should be one. Or you’re disagreeing with what the evaluators are saying, and potentially you would like a second opinion or a second evaluation by an independent person not employed by the school, which the school then has to provide for you.
And maybe there are specific concerns about the accommodations if you feel like the evaluators aren’t supporting the concerns or the accommodations that you’re seeking.
Seek Legal Advice
Again, parents and guardians should know that they have lots of rights and should speak up during this process. Sometimes the schools aren’t the most forthcoming about what these parents’ rights are.
I always recommend speaking with an attorney to help you through the process or any special education evaluations. We know the law and what you’re entitled to and can help you throughout the process.
You must know the evaluation concerns to have a successful Arizona IEP. It will help you ensure that your child gets the services they need to succeed in school. You must ensure that the evaluation team has the necessary information about your child to determine their needs accurately.
It would be best if you also ensured that the evaluation team uses a valid and reliable assessment tool. This assessment tool should be able to identify your child’s strengths and weaknesses.
Finally, you must ensure that the evaluation team makes recommendations for services based on your child’s unique needs.
How Long Does a School Have to Respond to an Evaluation Request in Arizona?
Traditionally, schools have up to 45 days to respond to an evaluation request. However, due to the pandemic, this timeline has been extended to 60 days. You must keep track of the timeline by counting days, including weekends and holidays. The clock starts ticking the day after you submit your evaluation request to the school. If the school does not respond to your evaluation request within the 60-day timeline, you have the right to file a due process complaint.
Do You Need an Arizona IEP Attorney?
Understanding the Arizona IEP process can be complicated. If you’re concerned about your child’s education, you may want to consider hiring an IEP attorney. An IEP attorney can help you navigate the IEP process and ensure that your child’s rights are protected.
At Chelle Law, we understand parents’ challenges when advocating for their child’s education. We can help you understand your rights and options under the law. We will work with you to create an individualized education plan that meets your child’s unique needs.
Contact us today to schedule a consultation.
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